To conclude we have seen two major schools which has had a great impact in the criminology department, these school have been invented to prevent crime from occurring and to identify criminals and no vn-criminals. The two schools which we have seen are; Classical theory was introduced in the 18th century during the enlightenment period by the theorist Cesare Becarria and Jeremy Bentham. Prior to the introduction of classical criminology, the law system was brutal and unfair; thus, the main focus of classicist was to legalise the justice department and create the same lay system for the general public (White et al., 2008). The concept was not interested in how and why crime were committed rather just a perfect justice system. This also included the concept of free-will means that people had the right to do whatever they want. Gottfredson et al., (1990) on the other hand positivist school which was introduced in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso, Raffael Garofalo and Enrico Ferri. The key idea behind this theory was to use scientific methods to understand criminality and crime. This theory believed that behaviour was cause by psychological, biological and social factor which are out of our control. The major difference between the two theories are that classical school is mainly based on free will and suggests that crime as a choice, whereas positivism criminology argues that crime is not a choice.
Cesare Lombroso is related to much positivist thinking, as a psychiatrist he looked at criminals as being throwbacks to a more primitive stage of human development, he compared physical features of criminals and related them to more primitive stages of mankind and formed a prediction based on measurements of skulls and main physical features, of how certain criminals look. Lombroso's thinking clashed with that of classical thinking, saying that criminals were born not made, and they are not rational as they reproduce thoughts similar to that of inferior humanity.