Searching for evidence of critical thinking in discourse has roots in a definition of critical thinking put forth by Kuhn (1991),  which places more emphasis on the social nature of discussion and knowledge construction. There is limited research on the role of social experience in critical thinking development, but there is some evidence to suggest it is an important factor. For example, research has shown that 3- to 4-year-old children can discern, to some extent, the differential creditability  and expertise  of individuals. Further evidence for the impact of social experience on the development of critical thinking skills comes from work that found that 6- to 7-year-olds from China have similar levels of skepticism to 10- and 11-year-olds in the United States.  If the development of critical thinking skills was solely due to maturation, it is unlikely we would see such dramatic differences across cultures.
A popular contemporary appraisal technique is the 360 degree feedback. In this method, employees are evaluated by colleagues, customers, subordinates, other interested parties an supervisors. The major advantage of this technique is that it offers the employee a glimpse of how others view his performance in various relationships critical to his job. It also allows a better chance to compare different perspectives in the evaluation process. Biased evaluators, poor alignment with goals and negative employee feelings are among cons of this approach.
The impact of using Unstructured feedback is relatively new in the appraisal world and is making a huge difference in performance management and business success. Unstructured feedback is typically being collected year-round via technology-enabled appraisals where comments, journal notes, and feedback are collected as it happens. This type of feedback serves as a summary of performance throughout the cycle and is greatly increasing the accuracy of appraisals as managers have access to a library of notes to help support evaluation decisions. (see emPerform tag ).