Thus, Hillel called attention to seven commonly used hermeneutical principles in the interpretation of laws ( baraita at the beginning of Sifra ); R. Ishmael , thirteen (baraita at the beginning of Sifra; this collection is largely an amplification of that of Hillel).  Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili listed 32, largely used for the exegesis of narrative elements of Torah. All the hermeneutic rules scattered through the Talmudim and Midrashim have been collected by Malbim in Ayyelet ha-Shachar , the introduction to his commentary on the Sifra . Nevertheless, R. Ishmael's 13 principles are perhaps the ones most widely known; they constitute an important, and one of Judaism's earliest, contributions to logic , hermeneutics , and jurisprudence .  Judah Hadassi incorporated Ishmael's principles into Karaite Judaism in the 12th century.  Today R. Ishmael's 13 principles are incorporated into the Jewish prayer book to be read by observant Jews on a daily basis.    
This estimate, by John Robbins in his book Food Revolution (San Francisco: Conari Press, 2001), is based on Dr. David Pimentel et al, in Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment, Conservation and Health (Washington, .: Island Press, 2001). Pimentel is professor of ecology and agricultural science at Cornell University. The estimate is based on 100 units of hay and four units of grain being fed to cattle to produce one unit of beef. Robbins’ book also contains statistics on how much fossil fuels, water and land are required to produce a number of different foods.
Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate.